Faustball

(名詞) 浮士德球。這是一項非常古老的運動,盛行於中歐洲、美洲和非洲幾個德裔語系移民的國家。Faustball 是德文,英文為 fistball,直譯叫做「拳球」。浮士德球是德文直接音譯,又名「草地排球」,乃是它結合排球與網球技巧在草地上比賽之故。

Faustball浮士德球的歷史記載首次出現在西元前 240 年,是由一位羅馬君主所推動,而這也是有歷史記載的最古老的運動之一。它的外貌和精神類似排球與網球,並且在歐洲地區德語系國家及鄰近地區盛行。最初的浮士德球規則訂於西元 1555 年,由義大利人所制定;之後在 19 世紀由德國人將其發揚光大,成為現今浮士德球所使用的規則。

浮士德球與排球的比較:

  1. 選手人數:排球一隊 6 人,浮士德球一隊 5 人。
  2. 比賽場地:排球在室內的人工地板,而浮士德球在室外的草地;場地大小不同,排球場為 18 公尺長 9 公尺寬,而浮士德球場為 50 公尺長 20 公尺寬。
  3. 排球是以網子將兩隊隔開,而浮士德球僅使用一條紅白雙色細繩,將場地分為兩邊。
  4. 排球一局內可以有 6 次換人,而浮士德球只有 3次;發球權排球是得分的一方取得,而浮士德球正好相反,是由失誤的一方取得。
  5. 浮士德球只能單手接球,用拳頭和手臂擊球,而排球可以雙手接球,手指托球、手掌擊球;排球比賽球不可以落地,而浮士德球允許球著地彈跳一次,當然直接接球也可以。

此外,浮士德球與排球的得分規則相似,都是雙方選手互相將球擊向對方場地,對手若失誤無法回擊就可得分。浮士德球一場比賽有 3 局,每局先獲得 20 分者獲勝,先搶下 2 局的一方,才算贏得比賽,如果雙方 20 平手時,獲勝一方必須連勝 2 分以上才能取勝,Deuce 至先取得第25分的一方才算贏得該局。

浮士德球是 2009 年高雄世運會的競賽種類之一。

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bossnapping

17世紀的罪犯綁架或誘拐小孩到美國農場和農園擔任僕役或苦力。這就是 kidnapping 這個字的起源,其中 kid 當時是個俚語,意為「小孩」(child),而 napping 意為「偷」(stealing) -- napping 是 nab (偷竊,盜竊) 的相關字。kidnapping 的後遺症歷久不衰,napping 的觀念一直流傳下來,這期間出現不少以 napping 所構成的字,最有名的是 dognapping (偷狗 -- 為取得贖金或轉售給實驗室所進行的偷竊狗隻行為)。

時序推移至2009年4月初,一種新的 napping 型態翩然出現,原因是法國公司的員工為抗議大量裁員而孤注一擲地強行監禁他們的外籍老闆、主管或上司。在這些 bossnapping (挾持或監禁老闆、主管或上司) 的事件中,3M法國公司的負責人被囚禁兩天兩夜,索尼 (Sony) 法國公司的執行長被監禁一個晚上,英國膠帶製造商「司卡帕」(Scapa) 公司的三名高階主管被堵在辦公室內動彈不得,而全球最大礦業與營建設備製造廠美國的「卡特彼勒」(Caterpillar) 公司的四名高階主管則遭到挾持。

這種作法在法國可謂歷史悠久,是員工尋求與老闆談判的一種手段。法國人稱之為 sequestration (隔離),但英語國家則以 bossnapping 稱之。自此之後,bossnapping 這個新字新詞立即快速蔓延,隨處可見,並幾乎同時出現它的變體,如動詞 bossnap (挾持或監禁老闆、主管或上司),名詞 bossnapper ( (挾持或監禁老闆、主管或上司的人) 和形容詞 bossnapped ([老闆、主管或上司] 被挾持或監禁的) -- 顯示這個字被接受的程度很高。

引句:
Bossnapping is not new in France but the growing number of corporate restructurings and rising unemployment have fuelled growing militancy in labour protests. A poll this week showed almost half of those interviewed believed that actions such as bossnapping were acceptable. [金融時報 (Financial Times),8 Apr. 2009]

Bossnappers struck again in France today as four executives of Caterpillar, the heavy equipment manufacturer, were detained by their employees in a protest over redundancy plans. [泰晤士報 (The Times),31 Mar. 2009]

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Mum bathes baby in breast milk/母親給嬰兒洗母奶澡

baby in breast milkA Chinese new mother is producing so much breast milk that she baths her baby in the excess each day.

Mrs Luo, of Chongqing, says she is producing two liters of milk more than she needs to feed her six-week-old daughter Shan Shan.

Mother, husband and her mother-in-law had all been drinking the extra milk but she says they still have plenty left over.

Luo's mother-in-law said they were all beginning to feel like they were drinking too much milk: "Then I suggested why not give the baby a breast milk bath, and they took my advice," she said.

Luo said the milk bath makes her Shan Shan's skin really smooth and white.

But she is looking for someone to donate her extra breast milk to as she feels that bathing her baby in breast milk is too much of an indulgence. (Chongqing Times – 重慶時報)

《字詞解析》

breast milk -- (n.) 母奶。breastfeed (v.):餵母奶。breastfeeding (n.):餵母奶。

so…that -- (phr.) 如此…以致於。在這個超常用的表示因果 (cause and effect) 關係的句型中 (其中 that 為附屬連接詞),so 後面原本只能接形容詞和副詞,但若 so 和 that 中間有 few, little, many 和 much 等字,則此句型可寫成 so + few/little/many/much + 名詞 + that。

bath -- (v.) 洗澡;給…洗澡。別以為 bath 僅當名詞用,在英國 bath 也用作動詞,其意思和用法跟 bathe 完全相同;美國通常使用 bathe。所以,標題的 bathes 和第一段的 baths 都正確,都是單數動詞。

excess -- (n.) 過剩的奶水。

(be) left over -- (v.) 剩下。

someone to donate her extra breast milk to -- (phr.) 把她多餘的母奶捐給某人。特別注意:這句如果沒有後面的介系詞 to,那麼整句的意思就完全相反了,變成「某人捐出她多餘的母奶」,這顯然與事實不符。這句是 She is looking for someone who she will donate her extra breast milk to. 或 She is looking for someone to whom she will donate her extra breast milk. 的減化 -- 由此可知,someone 是 to 的受詞。同樣地,在 There’s a big swimming pool for us to swim in. (有個大游泳池可讓我們游泳) 和 I gave her a chair to sit on. (我給她一張椅子坐) 這兩句中,介系詞 in 和 on 都不可省略,因為 swim 和 sit 皆為不及物動詞,而 swimming pool 和 chair 是受詞,所以不及物動詞和受詞之間必須要有介系詞。

too much of an indulgence -- (phr.) 太多的嬌縱,即太過嬌縱。在英文中,too much of a/an + 名詞 (太過…,太多…),a bit of a/an + 名詞 (有點…),something of a/an + 名詞 (有幾分;可說是;算得上) 等這種片語或句型屢見不鮮。例如:She’s always been a bit of a mystery to me. (她對我來說總是有點神秘);He’s something of an expert on growing vegetables. (他可說是位種植蔬菜的專家)。

延伸閱讀:新聞英語的語法結構

World's first sand hotel/全球第一家沙旅館

World's first sand hotelThe world's first ever sand hotel has been made in Dorset and is accepting its first guests for £10 a night.

It took 1,000 tonnes of sand and a team of four sculptors working 14 hours a day for seven days to build the structure on Weymouth beach.

Guests can book to stay in the hotel, which includes beds made out of sand, until the rain washes it away.

The structure was created by a hotel company to celebrate a resurgence of holidaymakers flocking to the seaside.

The sand hotel offers a twin and double bedroom, while the roofless structure gives guests the chance to "star-gaze" at night, the firm said.

But there are no toilet facilities and people were warned the sand "gets everywhere".

Mark Anderson, creator of the sand hotel, said: "It is the biggest sandcastle-like structure ever in the UK.

"Four of us worked hard and with the help of a JCB we got it built. The beds are made of sand so it can get everywhere, especially between the toes.

"But the best thing is in the morning the tide laps through the door, what a great way to wake up." (BBC)

《字詞解析》

first ever/biggest... ever -- (adj.) 歷來第一的/歷來最大的。最高級形容詞後面的 ever 意為「在任何時候;至今」,可放在該形容詞所修飾的名詞之前 (如第1段的 the first ever sand hotel) 或名詞之後 (如第7段的 the biggest sandcastle-like structure ever)。

Dorset /Weymouth -- (n.) Dorset 是英國西南部的一個郡,而 Weymouth 是該郡的一個鎮。

resurgence -- (n.) 再起;再現。

holidaymaker -- (n.) 假日遊客。

flock -- (v.) 蜂擁到;成群地去。

twin and double bedroom -- (n.) 兩張單人床和一張雙人床的房間。twin beds 為成對的單人床,而 double bed 為雙人床。

stargaze -- (v.) 觀星,看星星,眺望星星。stargazer (n.):看星星的人;占星師;天文學家;夢想家;空論家。

toilet facility -- (n.) 衛浴設施。

"gets everywhere". -- (v.) get everywhere 原意為「到各個地方」,在此指沙是鬆軟的,不固定的,腳一踩下去就垮掉了,弄得到處都是。這裡之所以將引號和句號列出,是要說明英美標點符號的差異:在美式用法中,逗號和句號 (又稱逗點和句點) 是位在引號內,而在英式用法中,逗號和句號除非是引言的一部份才位在引號內,否則位於引號外。由於本文是英國 BBC 的報導,所以句號位在引號外,但在本文最後一段,由於是引用整句話,所以句號是位在引號內。

JCB -- (n.) 工程車 (engineering vehicles)。這是英國一家名為 J. C. Bamford (Excavators) Ltd. 的公司所出產的工程車 (J. C. Bamford 為該公司的創辦人),並非日本信用卡組織 JCB。英文中這種以公司名來稱呼其產品而使「專有名詞通俗化」的例子不少,這些商標名雖仍維持大寫,但已被當作一般用語,泛指各該用品、食品等,例如「冰棒」叫做 Popsicle (這是一家生產冰棒的公司名稱)。

lap -- (v.) (波浪) 輕輕拍打。

延伸閱讀:新聞英語的語法結構

Clothes made out of hair/頭髮做成的服裝

Ioana CioancaA Romanian woman has made herself an entire wardrobe of clothes out of her own hair.

Ioana Cioanca, 71, from Bistrita Nasaud, grew her hair from the age of 16 until it was 40 inches long so she could weave it.

"Long years I had to wait for my hair to grow so as to make clothes from it but I managed and I am very pleased now," she said.

"Maybe there are other women who did this but I don't know if they have so many items. I have nine of them: a hat, a shawl, a skirt, a blouse, a raincoat, a purse, a handbag and a pair of gloves."

Mrs Cioanca explained that some of her clothes are lighter in colour because they were made in the last 10 years after her hair began to turn gray.

She says her hair-made clothes are "quite comfortable and warm" and she hopes to get her name in the record books to let other people know how useful human hair can be.

《字詞解析》

make sb1 from (or out of) sb2 – (v.) 用sb2 來做或製作 sb1。

wardrobe – (n.) (個人的) 全部服裝。an entire wardrobe of clothes:整套的服裝 – 指的是本文第4段所提到的9件物品,包括帽子、錢包、手套等,這些都是本文女主角 Ioana Cioanca 用自己的頭髮做成的。

made herself an entire wardrobe of clothes -- (v.) (用她的頭髮) 為她自己做了整套的服裝。這是 make 接雙受詞 (間接受詞 + 直接受詞) 的句型,如 Will you make me a cup of coffee? (= Will you make a cup of coffee for me?) (你能為我沖杯咖啡嗎?);此外,His ruthless behavior made him many enemies. (他的殘忍行為使他樹敵眾多) 這樣的句子也是屬於make 接雙受詞的句型。然而,要特別注意的是,別將這種句型與「make + 受詞 + 名詞」的句型搞混,因為後者中的名詞係受詞補語,如 They made her (a) director. (他們推舉她為董事),句中 director 跟 her 是同一個人,但 His ruthless behavior made him many enemies. 中的 him 跟 enemies 是不同人。

weave – (v.) 編織。

manage – (v.) 做到了。在本文中,manage 後面省略了 to make clothes from her own hair。若要表示過去有能力做某事,我們可以用 could,如 She could play the piano when she was five. (她5歲時就能彈鋼琴);但若要表示過去有能力做某事而且做了,則使用 managed to, was/were able to 或 succeeded in (後兩者為比較正式的用語),如 I managed to get the tickets I wanted. = I was able to get the tickets I wanted. = I succeeded in getting the tickets I wanted. (我買到了我要買的票) – 這相當於 I could and I did。

shawl – (n.) (女用) (長) 方形披巾,圍巾。

blouse – (n.) (婦女等的) 短上衣,短衫。

turn gray – (v.) (頭髮) 變白。

record book – (n.) 記錄大全。

延伸閱讀:新聞英語的語法結構

fast-food zoning

(名詞) 速食分區法:目的在阻止速食餐廳 (fast-food restaurant) 或速食店 (fast-food eatery) 在某地區或社區設立的法律。

在美國,繼櫃臺點餐的速食餐廳和外帶餐廳 (takeout restaurant 或簡稱 takeout) 崛起之後,為了區別,一般有餐桌服務 (table service) 的餐廳乃被稱為 sit-down restaurant (引句中也有提到)。 sit-down restaurant 通常被歸類為「家庭式」(family-style) 或「正式的」(formal) 餐廳。在英式英語中,restaurant 這個名詞幾乎都是指有餐桌服務的餐廳,所以未必需要 "sit-down" 來限定;英國的速食店和外帶飲食店 (takeaway outlet -- 外帶餐館在英國叫做 takeaway,在美國叫做 takeout 或 carryout,但後者較少見) 通常不被稱為 restaurant。

引句:
In an effort to provide residents with more nutritious choices, the L.A. City Council adopted landmark legislation in July mandating a one-year moratorium on the building of new fast-food eateries in a 32-square-mile area. (Fast-food zoning exists in other cities but is based on aesthetic considerations, not health factors.) According to Jan Perry, a council member who co-sponsored the bill and whose district is part of South L.A., the idea is to freeze fast-food development so that sit-down restaurants and quality-food markets will build in the area. 'When every corner is taken up with fast food,' Perry says, 'there's no room for anyone else.'
—Steven Kurutz, "Fast-Food Zoning," The New York Times, December 14, 2008

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