substition

(名詞) 許多人不相信的事實。
substitious (形容詞):許多人不相信的事實的。

註:Substition 這個字是由英國知名作家泰瑞·普萊契 (Terry Pratchett) 所創造,為 superstition (迷信) 的反義詞。換言之,superstition 是某種非真實的事物,但許多人相信,而 substition 則是某種真實的事物,但許多人卻不相信。請注意 substition 和 substitution (代替,替換) 兩者拼字的不同。

普萊契甫於日前 (2015 年 3 月 12 日) 死於阿茲海默症,享年 67 歲。

引句:
Climate change is real, even though any number of people, at their great peril, refuse to believe in it. Climate change is a substition. For most of human history, bacteria and viruses weren't believed to be real even though people died of them. Bacteria were a substition. Just because you don’t believe in infectious diseases doesn’t make them any less real.
—"Thinking About Substitions," Wickersham's Conscience, September 21, 2013

It is pretty obvious that conservatives prefer a lie with which they feel comfortable, to the truth, which they find offensive. This is a further example of both superstition (belief in things which are not true), and substition (failure to believe in facts.)
—machintelligence, "ACA price tag continues to drop" (comment), Rachel Maddow Show, March 11, 2015

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fauxnonymous

(形容詞) 匿名的 (但相當容易辨認出來)。亦寫成 faux-nonymous。這個字是由 faux (假的) + anonymous (匿名的) 拼綴而成。fauxnonymity (名詞):(相當容易辨認出來的) 匿名。

引句:
According to popular financial blogger Fritz Trout, "Bitcoin turns out to be a fauxnonymous byproduct of the war on terror! Hollywood couldn't have written a better ending to this sad chapter in the global economy."
—"Bitcoin Was Created by the NSA: The Latest Shocking Snowden Revelation," Sharpened Sticks, July 3, 2013

Cousin if you see this since I know you reddit, sorry for sharing but at least its fauxnonymous.
—Wingd, "TIFU by opening a snapchat the very moment I received it," Reddit, February 23, 2015

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sleeveface

(名詞) 將某唱片或專輯的封套 (封面最好有該歌手的圖片,情況大多如此) 遮住臉部或其他某個身體部位後所拍攝的照片。這個字亦可當形容詞和動詞用,其中 sleeve 意為「(唱片或專輯的) 封套」,但這是英式英語,同義的美式英語叫做 jacket。不過,當名詞用的 sleeveface 和動名詞 sleevefacing 似乎最常見。

根據「維基百科」,sleeveface 是由英國人 Carl Morris 在 2007 年 4 月所創造,但其他網站則指是由一位名叫 John Rostron 的仁兄所創造。但不管誰才是這個新字的真正創造者,sleeveface 這種巧妙地將歌手影像與個人身體集合在一起、讓人產生錯覺的花招正在網路上流行,同名或名稱相近的網站相繼成立;尤有甚者,sleeveface 在社群網站 (social networking sites) 更是大行其道,Facebook 就有個同名團體,頗具知名度。(圖片:sleeveface.com)

引句:
Just when you thought your old LPs were worthless, along comes the incredible photo genre called "sleeveface." Take an old album cover, preferably with a picture of the artist on it, and then pose with it, merging the album sleeve and background together into a fun — and often unforgettable — photograph.
—John Campanelli, "Download," Plain Dealer, January 3, 2010

A sleeveface is an image created by holding an album cover over someone's face or another body part, and snapping a photo of the subject. The selected record cover is generally a photo of someone's face so the result is in an illusion....The fad has been sweeping the Internet, with sleevefaces popping up on Facebook and art sites. Groups hold parties and workshops to create sleevefaces.
—Debby Abe, "Sleevefacing: Using music albums with everyday bodies," The News Tribune, December 13, 2009

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World's youngest female karate black belt/全球最年輕的女子空手道黑帶

Varsha Vinod
Varsha Vinod, 5, the girl from Allappuzha, India, is the world's youngest female karate black belt. In May, Varsha became the youngest ever girl to get an officially recognized black belt.

Varsha, who is a student at the KoInChi Academy of Martial arts in Allappuzha, India, has to train for a gruelling two and half hours a day to keep her skills fresh. Varsha has been training since she was just two years old.

The five-year-old's talents are so amazing computer game makers and creators of the Lara Croft Tomb Raider series, Eidos, have taken notice.

Her skills have been replicated in the software houses' latest computer game Mini Ninjas.

She said: "I hope I can get better and I want to keep doing karate."

The Guinness Book of Records and India's own record book Limica are now looking into Varsha's achievement to create a new world record. (Telegraph)

《字詞解析》

karate -- (n.) 空手道。

black belt -- (n.) (柔道、空手道等上段的) 黑帶。

the youngest ever -- (adj.) 歷來最年輕的。the youngest ever girl = the youngest girl ever。「最高級形容詞-ever + 名詞」(最高級形容詞和 ever 之間一般都有連字號) 這種句型相當常用,亦可寫成「最高級形容詞 + 名詞 + ever」,如 " worst-ever disaster = worst disaster ever " (歷來最為慘重的災難)。

officially recognized -- (adj.) 正式承認的;正式認可的。

martial arts -- (n.) 武術。

grueling -- (adj.) 令人受不了的。

skills -- (n.) 搏鬥技巧。

Lara Croft Tomb Raider -- (n.)《古墓奇兵:風起雲湧》(電腦遊戲名稱)。

Eidos -- (n.) 一家電腦遊戲開發商。

take notice -- (v.) 注意。

replicate -- (v.) 複製。

Mini Ninjas -- (n.)《迷你忍者》(電腦遊戲名稱)。

do karate -- (v.) 打空手道;練空手道。

Guinness Book of Records -- (n.) 金氏世界記錄大全。

Limica -- (n.) 印度記錄大全。

延伸閱讀:新聞英語的語法結構

D2D

(名詞) 挨家挨戶推銷。這是 door-to-doordoor to door 的縮寫。

door-to-door 亦可當形容詞用,但僅用於名詞前,意為「挨家挨戶的;送貨到府的」:a door-to-door salesman (挨家挨戶兜售的推銷員);a door-to-door delivery service (送貨到府服務)。

引句:
"It’s missionary work turned into a business," said Cameron Treu, 30, who served his mission in Chile and was recruited into D2D (that is door-to-door in sales lingo) by another former missionary.
—Kirk Johnson, "Door to Door as Missionaries, Then as Salesmen," New York Times, June 11, 2009

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bossnapping

17世紀的罪犯綁架或誘拐小孩到美國農場和農園擔任僕役或苦力。這就是 kidnapping 這個字的起源,其中 kid 當時是個俚語,意為「小孩」(child),而 napping 意為「偷」(stealing) -- napping 是 nab (偷竊,盜竊) 的相關字。kidnapping 的後遺症歷久不衰,napping 的觀念一直流傳下來,這期間出現不少以 napping 所構成的字,最有名的是 dognapping (偷狗 -- 為取得贖金或轉售給實驗室所進行的偷竊狗隻行為)。

時序推移至2009年4月初,一種新的 napping 型態翩然出現,原因是法國公司的員工為抗議大量裁員而孤注一擲地強行監禁他們的外籍老闆、主管或上司。在這些 bossnapping (挾持或監禁老闆、主管或上司) 的事件中,3M法國公司的負責人被囚禁兩天兩夜,索尼 (Sony) 法國公司的執行長被監禁一個晚上,英國膠帶製造商「司卡帕」(Scapa) 公司的三名高階主管被堵在辦公室內動彈不得,而全球最大礦業與營建設備製造廠美國的「卡特彼勒」(Caterpillar) 公司的四名高階主管則遭到挾持。

這種作法在法國可謂歷史悠久,是員工尋求與老闆談判的一種手段。法國人稱之為 sequestration (隔離),但英語國家則以 bossnapping 稱之。自此之後,bossnapping 這個新字新詞立即快速蔓延,隨處可見,並幾乎同時出現它的變體,如動詞 bossnap (挾持或監禁老闆、主管或上司),名詞 bossnapper ( (挾持或監禁老闆、主管或上司的人) 和形容詞 bossnapped ([老闆、主管或上司] 被挾持或監禁的) -- 顯示這個字被接受的程度很高。

引句:
Bossnapping is not new in France but the growing number of corporate restructurings and rising unemployment have fuelled growing militancy in labour protests. A poll this week showed almost half of those interviewed believed that actions such as bossnapping were acceptable. [金融時報 (Financial Times),8 Apr. 2009]

Bossnappers struck again in France today as four executives of Caterpillar, the heavy equipment manufacturer, were detained by their employees in a protest over redundancy plans. [泰晤士報 (The Times),31 Mar. 2009]

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Mum bathes baby in breast milk/母親給嬰兒洗母奶澡

baby in breast milkA Chinese new mother is producing so much breast milk that she baths her baby in the excess each day.

Mrs Luo, of Chongqing, says she is producing two liters of milk more than she needs to feed her six-week-old daughter Shan Shan.

Mother, husband and her mother-in-law had all been drinking the extra milk but she says they still have plenty left over.

Luo's mother-in-law said they were all beginning to feel like they were drinking too much milk: "Then I suggested why not give the baby a breast milk bath, and they took my advice," she said.

Luo said the milk bath makes her Shan Shan's skin really smooth and white.

But she is looking for someone to donate her extra breast milk to as she feels that bathing her baby in breast milk is too much of an indulgence. (Chongqing Times – 重慶時報)

《字詞解析》

breast milk -- (n.) 母奶。breastfeed (v.):餵母奶。breastfeeding (n.):餵母奶。

so…that -- (phr.) 如此…以致於。在這個超常用的表示因果 (cause and effect) 關係的句型中 (其中 that 為附屬連接詞),so 後面原本只能接形容詞和副詞,但若 so 和 that 中間有 few, little, many 和 much 等字,則此句型可寫成 so + few/little/many/much + 名詞 + that。

bath -- (v.) 洗澡;給…洗澡。別以為 bath 僅當名詞用,在英國 bath 也用作動詞,其意思和用法跟 bathe 完全相同;美國通常使用 bathe。所以,標題的 bathes 和第一段的 baths 都正確,都是單數動詞。

excess -- (n.) 過剩的奶水。

(be) left over -- (v.) 剩下。

someone to donate her extra breast milk to -- (phr.) 把她多餘的母奶捐給某人。特別注意:這句如果沒有後面的介系詞 to,那麼整句的意思就完全相反了,變成「某人捐出她多餘的母奶」,這顯然與事實不符。這句是 She is looking for someone who she will donate her extra breast milk to. 或 She is looking for someone to whom she will donate her extra breast milk. 的減化 -- 由此可知,someone 是 to 的受詞。同樣地,在 There’s a big swimming pool for us to swim in. (有個大游泳池可讓我們游泳) 和 I gave her a chair to sit on. (我給她一張椅子坐) 這兩句中,介系詞 in 和 on 都不可省略,因為 swim 和 sit 皆為不及物動詞,而 swimming pool 和 chair 是受詞,所以不及物動詞和受詞之間必須要有介系詞。

too much of an indulgence -- (phr.) 太多的嬌縱,即太過嬌縱。在英文中,too much of a/an + 名詞 (太過…,太多…),a bit of a/an + 名詞 (有點…),something of a/an + 名詞 (有幾分;可說是;算得上) 等這種片語或句型屢見不鮮。例如:She’s always been a bit of a mystery to me. (她對我來說總是有點神秘);He’s something of an expert on growing vegetables. (他可說是位種植蔬菜的專家)。

延伸閱讀:新聞英語的語法結構

World's first sand hotel/全球第一家沙旅館

World's first sand hotelThe world's first ever sand hotel has been made in Dorset and is accepting its first guests for £10 a night.

It took 1,000 tonnes of sand and a team of four sculptors working 14 hours a day for seven days to build the structure on Weymouth beach.

Guests can book to stay in the hotel, which includes beds made out of sand, until the rain washes it away.

The structure was created by a hotel company to celebrate a resurgence of holidaymakers flocking to the seaside.

The sand hotel offers a twin and double bedroom, while the roofless structure gives guests the chance to "star-gaze" at night, the firm said.

But there are no toilet facilities and people were warned the sand "gets everywhere".

Mark Anderson, creator of the sand hotel, said: "It is the biggest sandcastle-like structure ever in the UK.

"Four of us worked hard and with the help of a JCB we got it built. The beds are made of sand so it can get everywhere, especially between the toes.

"But the best thing is in the morning the tide laps through the door, what a great way to wake up." (BBC)

《字詞解析》

first ever/biggest... ever -- (adj.) 歷來第一的/歷來最大的。最高級形容詞後面的 ever 意為「在任何時候;至今」,可放在該形容詞所修飾的名詞之前 (如第1段的 the first ever sand hotel) 或名詞之後 (如第7段的 the biggest sandcastle-like structure ever)。

Dorset /Weymouth -- (n.) Dorset 是英國西南部的一個郡,而 Weymouth 是該郡的一個鎮。

resurgence -- (n.) 再起;再現。

holidaymaker -- (n.) 假日遊客。

flock -- (v.) 蜂擁到;成群地去。

twin and double bedroom -- (n.) 兩張單人床和一張雙人床的房間。twin beds 為成對的單人床,而 double bed 為雙人床。

stargaze -- (v.) 觀星,看星星,眺望星星。stargazer (n.):看星星的人;占星師;天文學家;夢想家;空論家。

toilet facility -- (n.) 衛浴設施。

"gets everywhere". -- (v.) get everywhere 原意為「到各個地方」,在此指沙是鬆軟的,不固定的,腳一踩下去就垮掉了,弄得到處都是。這裡之所以將引號和句號列出,是要說明英美標點符號的差異:在美式用法中,逗號和句號 (又稱逗點和句點) 是位在引號內,而在英式用法中,逗號和句號除非是引言的一部份才位在引號內,否則位於引號外。由於本文是英國 BBC 的報導,所以句號位在引號外,但在本文最後一段,由於是引用整句話,所以句號是位在引號內。

JCB -- (n.) 工程車 (engineering vehicles)。這是英國一家名為 J. C. Bamford (Excavators) Ltd. 的公司所出產的工程車 (J. C. Bamford 為該公司的創辦人),並非日本信用卡組織 JCB。英文中這種以公司名來稱呼其產品而使「專有名詞通俗化」的例子不少,這些商標名雖仍維持大寫,但已被當作一般用語,泛指各該用品、食品等,例如「冰棒」叫做 Popsicle (這是一家生產冰棒的公司名稱)。

lap -- (v.) (波浪) 輕輕拍打。

延伸閱讀:新聞英語的語法結構

flashpacker

(名詞) 奢華的背包客 (backpacker)。這個字是由 flash 和 backpacker 拼綴而成,亦寫成 flash-packer
-- flashpacking (現在分詞/動名詞):背包旅行。

flash 這個形容詞頗為古老,最早可追溯至 1785 年,意為「奢華的;炫耀的;擺闊的」-- 通常指這種奢華或炫耀行徑已到沒有品味的程度,因此是個貶抑之詞。

引句:
Europe's hostels now offer cool upmarket accommodations at bargain prices. There are still the communal areas that made hostels the social place to be in the early '90s, but now they are matched by posh facilities. The clientele includes fewer backpackers, more flashpackers: holidaymakers with a taste for the nice things but who are cost-cutting in keeping with the climate.
—Lucy Tobin, "Hostels hustle to add an upmarket tag," The Boston Globe, February 22, 2009

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