cast out; cast up; catch up in; chat away; chew off

cast * out +
把...趕走;驅逐;逐出
After the scandal, John was cast out of the company. (發生那樁醜聞後,約翰被公司開除了)
They cast him out because of his behavior. (由於他行為不當,他們把他趕走了)

cast * up +
把...沖上岸
A body was cast up last night. (昨晚有具屍體被沖上岸)
Pieces of rubbish are cast up all along the coast. (整個海岸都是被沖上來的垃圾)

cast * up +
計算;把 (數字) 加起來
Please cast up these numbers for me. (請替我把這些數字加起來)

catch up in +
(被) 捲入或陷入...之中 (通常用被動態,即 be/get caught up in)
Rob got caught up in a clash between protesters and the police. (羅伯被困在抗議民眾與警方的衝突之中)
Mary was caught up in the anti-nuclear movement. (瑪麗投身於反核運動)

chat away
閒談,聊天
The doctor chatted away as he examined my eyes. (醫生一邊檢查我的眼睛,一邊聊著天)

chew * off +
咬掉,咬斷
The dog chewed off the man's fingers. (那隻狗咬斷該男子的手指)

本文亦刊載在下列網址:
http://htmfiles.englishhome.org/phrasalverbs/phrasalverbs-c.htm

fatberg

(名詞) (下水道的) 巨型油脂塊;油脂山 - 民眾將廚餘、濕紙巾、尿布、排泄物及其他廢物直接倒入水溝或馬桶的結果,因積存多時而凝固成塊狀,看起來跟水泥塊沒什麼區別。這個字是由 fat (脂肪) + iceberg (冰山) 拼綴而成。

引句:
Enormous clusters of wet wipes are creating “fatbergs” that are clogging up sewer pipes across NSW, including a one-tonne cluster that blew out a pumping station near Lake Macquarie.
—Gabriel Wingate-Pearse & Glen Humphries, “Fatbergs: One tonne balls of wet wipes and fat block sewers,” The Sydney Morning Herald, February 25, 2016

First, someone might pour molten turkey fat down a drain. A few blocks away, someone else might flush a wet wipe down a toilet. When the two meet in a dank sewer pipe, a baby fatberg is born.
—Erika Engelhaupt, “Huge Blobs of Fat and Trash Are Filling the World’s Sewers,” National Geographic, August 16, 2017

本文亦刊載在下列網址:
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fatberg

witness tree

(名詞) 見證樹 - 非常古老的樹,尤指曾經「見證」重要歷史事件的樹。

引句:
Many tourists come to the Laurel Hill Cemetery, and they loved the tree because it was one of those that touched history; it was alive when famous figures from the past were alive,“ said Civil War author and historian Andy Waskie…” Many battlefields, such as Gettysburg, have ‘witness trees,’ which survived the fighting and are honored.
—Edward Colimore, “Laurel Hill Cemetery’s legendary ‘witness tree’ is felled,” The Inquirer (Philadelphia), May 29, 2016

Today, only four trees survive from Washington’s time—he died at Mount Vernon in 1799….No one is more aware of the mortality of the witness trees near the mansion than Joel King, a Mount Vernon gardener who is on a mission to propagate them.
—Adrian Higgins, “This gardener is working to preserve George Washington’s last surviving trees,” The Washington Post, February 20, 2017

本文亦刊載在下列網址:
http://htmfiles.englishhome.org/main/misc_cont4.htm

tree blindness

(名詞) 對生活環境中的樹木視而不見;無視生活環境中樹木的存在。
tree blind (v.):對周遭的樹木視而不見;無視周遭樹木的存在。

引句:
He laments that in big cities, children or even their parents have never scaled or felt trees. He chooses to call this phenomenon in urban areas, ‘tree blindness’. “People have this habit of ignoring the presence of trees around them,” said Khanna, who lives in New Friends Colony with his parents and younger sister.
—Vatsala Shrangi, “S Delhi resident revives the art of tree climbing in cities,” Hindustan Times, May 23, 2016

There was a time when knowing your trees was a matter of life and death, because you needed to know which ones were strong enough to support a house and which ones would feed you through the winter. Now most of us walk around, to adapt a term devised by some botanists, tree blind. But here’s the good news: Tree blindness can be cured.
—Gabriel Popkin, “Cure Yourself of Tree Blindness,” The New York Times, August 26, 2017

本文亦刊載在下列網址:
http://htmfiles.englishhome.org/main/misc_cont3.htm

neighbor spoofing

(動名詞/現在分詞) 以看似本地號碼的電話所打的詐騙電話 (scam call, scam phone call)。亦可用 neighboring 來表示相同的意思。英式拼法為 neighbour spoofingneighbouring。Spoof (v., n.) 意為「詐騙,行騙,欺騙」。

引句:
Apparently, the scammer used a technique called “neighbor spoofing.” The caller ID of such calls matches the area code and the first three digits of the recipient’s phone number, which is more likely to be answered than calls that simply match the area code.
—Rob LeFebvre, “FCC may fine robocall spammer $120 million for illegal spoofing,” Engadget, June 22, 2017

There are now a billion robocalls going to cellphones and landlines every month. Many of them look like they’re from your neighbor. It’s not really your neighbor, of course. It’s neighbor spoofing — which means using the internet to make it look like a scammer (who could be anywhere in the world) is calling from your area.
—Sally Helm & Kenny Malone, “Episode 789: Robocall Invasion,” NPR, August 18, 2017

本文亦刊載在下列網址:
http://htmfiles.englishhome.org/main/comp_cont2.htm

carry away; cast about/around/round for; cast aside; cast off

carry away
(某人) 興奮得失去控制,激動得不知所措,得意忘形。都以 be/get carried away 的型態出現。
There's far too much money - I got carried away. (這麼多的錢 - 我激動得不知所措)
Let's not get carried away. The deal could still fall through. (我們先別得意忘形,交易仍可能失敗)

cast about/around/round for +
搜尋,四處尋找;試圖找出,試圖想出
They're casting about for support. (他們正到處尋找支援)
She was casting around for people to help her. (她四處找人幫她)
He cast round desperately for something to say. (他搜索枯腸找話說)

cast * aside +
拋棄;丟掉
He cast her aside. (他把她拋棄了)
She has cast her old friends aside. (她把老朋友都撇在一邊)
As soon as he got a new cellphone, he cast aside the old one. (他一有了新手機,就把舊的扔掉了)

cast * off +
擺脫;拋棄
His hometown is still trying to cast off its dull image. (他的家鄉仍在努力擺脫其單調沈悶的形象)

cast off
(船舶) 解纜啟航
The ship was scheduled to cast off at 10 a.m. (這艘船定於早上十點啟航)

本文亦刊載在下列網址:
http://htmfiles.englishhome.org/phrasalverbs/phrasalverbs-c.htm

build around; build in; build into; build on; bulk up

build * around
圍繞;以 ... 為中心
His whole campaign was built around fighting injustice. (他的整個競選活動以打擊不公不義為主軸)

build * in
(通常用被動態) 使成為組成部分
The difficulties seem to be built in. (困難似乎無法避免)

build into +
(通常用被動態) 使成為組成部分;使成為不可分割的一部份
The difficulties are built into the work. (做這項工作必然會碰到困難)
Security has been built into the project. (這項計畫勢必會有安全上的問題)
The rate of pay was built into his contract. (工資率已訂入他的合約)

build * on
(建築物的) 加蓋,增建
We've had a sheet metal house built on the side of the building. (我們在這棟建築物的側面加蓋了鐵皮屋)
This part of the library was built on later. (圖書館的這一部份是後來增建的)

build on +
以 ... 為基礎
We need to build on the feedback from customers we have had so far. (我們必須以迄今為止收到的顧客回饋意見為基礎)

bulk up
變重;變大
Jack's bulked up a lot since he got those steroids. (傑克自從服用那些類固醇之後,他的體重增加了許多)

本文亦刊載在下列網址:
http://htmfiles.englishhome.org/phrasalverbs/phrasalverbs-b.htm

soft robotics

(名詞) 軟性機器人學;軟性機器人技術。軟性機器人是指用軟性、柔韌或有延展性的材料所做成的機器人。
soft robotic (adj.):軟性機器人的;軟性機器人學的
soft robot (n.):軟性機器人

引句:
The researchers planted a soft controller in the Octobot’s body that shunts liquid hydrogen peroxide through platinum reaction chambers, turning the fluid fuel to oxygen gas and water vapor. The gas pumps up the legs though tiny channels running from the body, making the gummy tentacles twitch—a big step in soft robotics.
—Kata Karáth, “The future of soft robotics: a 3D-printed, farting, gummy octopus,” Quartz, August 25, 2016

How will these robots appear in our lives and how will we interact, and live, with them? We can foresee smart skins, assist and medical devices, biodegradable and environmental robots or intelligent soft robots. For example, the compliance of soft robotics makes them ideally suited for direct interaction with biological tissue.
—Jonathan Rossiter, “Robotics, Smart Materials, and their Future Impact for Humans,” MIT Technology Review, April 6, 2017

本文亦刊載在下列網址:
http://htmfiles.englishhome.org/main/comp_cont3.htm

breed out; brick in; brick up; buckle down; buckle under; buckle up

breed * out +
在人工繁殖過程中消除 (某種特性、特徵等)
Cruelty and aggression have not yet been bred out of these animals. (殘忍和侵略性還未能在這些動物的人工繁殖過程中消除)

brick * in +
用磚堵住
The windows were all bricked in. (窗戶全用磚堵起來了)

brick * up +
用磚堵住
We bricked up a window/doorway/fireplace to prevent draughts. (我們用磚把窗戶/門口/壁爐堵住以防止進風)

buckle down
開始認真工作或努力做某事 (與 knuckle down 同義)
We had to buckle down and study for the exam. (我們必須開始好好唸書準備考試)

buckle under
屈服,屈從 (與 knuckle under 同義)
We didn't like the ideas, but had to buckle under or face the sack. (我們不喜歡這些構想,但不得不屈從,否則將面臨被解雇的命運)

buckle up
(在汽車、飛機等上) 繫好安全帶
The passengers were told to buckle up before take-off. (乘客被告知起飛前繫好安全帶)

本文亦刊載在下列網址:
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book out; bow in; bow out; bow to; break for

book out
結帳或辦理手續離開旅館
We'd like to book out early in the morning. (我們想明天一早就辦理手續離開旅館)

bow * in
鞠躬引進;恭敬地迎入
The owner of the restaurant bowed them in when they arrived. (他們來到餐廳時,老闆恭敬地將他們迎了進去)

bow * out
鞠躬送出;鞠躬退出
The waiters bowed the customers out as they left. (客人離開時,服務生鞠躬送出)
When leaving the presence of the king, you have to bow yourself out as you go. (你離開國王御前時得鞠躬退出去)

bow out
退出 (比賽等);引退;退休
John bowed out of the competition because of unknown reasons. (約翰不知什麼原因退出了比賽)
Our chief executive officer has decided to bow out early. (我們執行長已決定提前引退)

bow to +
向 (重要人物) 鞠躬致敬;屈服;服從;順從
All the officials in the conference room bowed to the President as he entered. (總統進入會議室時,所有官員都向他鞠躬致敬)
The government bowed to pressure and held the bill back. (政府屈服於壓力,撤回法案)
We must bow to their wishes. (我們必須順從他們的願望)

break for +
(為了逃走而) 跑向;逃往
Cindy had to hold him back as he tried to break for the door. (當他衝向大門試圖逃走時,辛蒂不得不攔阻他)
The police are assuming they'll break for the border. (警方推定他們會逃往邊界)

本文亦刊載在下列網址:
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