crowd mining

(名詞/現在分詞) 自大型社交資料庫提取或吸取有用的知識。亦寫成 crowd-mining

引句:
The six billion people on Earth are changing the biosphere so quickly that traditional ecological methods can't keep up. Humans, though, are acute observers of their environments and bodies, so scientists are combing through the text and numbers on the Internet in hopes of extracting otherwise unavailable or expensive information. It's more crowd mining than crowd sourcing.

Much of the pioneering work in this type of Internet surveillance has come in the public health field, tracking disease. Google Flu Trends, which uses a cloud of keywords to determine how sick a population is, tracks epidemiological data from the Centers for Disease Control.
—Alexis Madrigal, "Crawling the Web to Foretell Ecosystem Collapse," Wired Science, March 19, 2009

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genopolitics

(名詞) 政治遺傳學 -- 一門研究政治行為和態度是由基因所決定的科學。它是由行為遺傳學 (behavioral genetics)、心理學 (psychology) 和政治學 (political science) 所構成,且與新興的政治神經學 (neuropolitics) 和政治生理學 (political physiology) 有密切關係。
genopolitical (形容詞):政治遺傳的;政治遺傳學的。

引句:
Why do some people vote and others stay home on Election Day? For years, scholars have assumed that a voter pulls the lever because she grew up in a voting household or perhaps sat through a lot of civics classes. But this year two political scientists published studies claiming that in addition to environment, genes may be a primary influence on political engagement. Not only that, they think they have identified the genes that increase the likelihood of voting. A political scientist who advocates this approach calls this emerging field genopolitics.
—Emily Biuso, "Genopolitics," The New York Times, December 12, 2008

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hold off; hold off on; hold on; hold on to; hold onto; hold out; hold out against; hold out for; hold out on; hold over; hold together

hold * off +
擋住;使不接近;阻止 (某人的攻擊或毆打)
Mr. Johnson held the dog off while we crossed the yard.
John couldn't hold their opponents off and lost the game.

hold off
(雨或雪) 遲遲不下;壞天氣並未出現
The rain held off until we'd got back home.

hold off on +
延緩,拖延,推遲
We should hold off on making dinner until your parents arrive.

hold on
抓緊
Hold on tight! The roller coaster is about to take off.

hold on
(叫某人) 別掛斷電話,等候片刻;等待,等候
Hold on a minute. I'll get Carol.
Could you hold on for a minute; she'll be free in a moment.

hold on to +
抓緊
Make sure you hold on to the hand rail as you walk down the stairs.

hold onto +
(盡可能) 保留
I tried to hold onto my cash during the holiday so I could buy some duty free stuff on the way back.

hold onto +
抓緊
The mother held onto her daughter's hand to keep together in the crowd.

hold out
抵抗;堅守;不屈服
Stop holding out and tell us where you found all of these old records.
When the enemy attacked, they held out for six weeks.

hold * out +
伸出 (手等)
I held out my hand when she walked in.

hold out against +
不屈服;抵抗,反抗
They held out against enemy attack.
The staff are holding out against the plans to reduce the workforce.

hold out for +
(因想得到更大或更好的利益而) 堅持要求
We are holding out for a much better deal than the one offered.

hold out on +
不付錢,不給錢;隱瞞,瞞著
He's been holding out on me for weeks and I really need the money.

hold * over +
延後,推遲
The meeting has been held over till Friday.

hold * over +
使 (某事) 繼續
It has been so successful that they have held it over for another fortnight.

hold together
使 (物體) 結合在一起;(使) 團結 (起來)
The society managed to hold together despite the crisis.

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jackadoodle

(名詞) 傑克羅素梗 (Jack Russel) 和貴賓狗 (poodle) 雜交所生的品種。

本網站的「專業詞彙中英對照」已將「狗的名稱」予以彙整,網友可多加參閱。

引句:
Jackadoodles are a cross breed between a Jack Russell and a poodle.
—"Dogs stolen for jackadoodle trade," BBC News, April 9, 2009

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a jackadoodle

prebituary

(名詞) 1. 一個人往生前預先製作或刊登的訃聞;2. 失敗的預測,尤指政治候選人落敗的預測。亦寫成 pre-bituary

引句:
Perhaps The Times could pioneer the concept of Prebituaries, by celebrating the lifetime achievements of notable people to mark their 65th birthdays? It would be a wonderful boost to their social life as they entered retirement. They could also read the bulk of their obituary at the breakfast table, rather than having to wait for the full text and then only being able to read it from their cloud using a powerful telescope.
—Adrian Fisher, "A novel idea?," The Times (London), July 16, 2008

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get on to; get on with; get onto; get out; get out of; get out!

get on to +
開始懷疑
It took the authorities a long time to get on to the gang.

get on with +
相處融洽;合得來
Do you get on with your neighbors?

get on with +
(中斷後) 繼續某一活動;(中斷後) 繼續做某事
Now that the police have left, let's get on with the party!
She told us to get on with our work.

get onto +
開始討論 (某主題);開始談到 (某事物)
We didn't get onto the third item on the agenda.

get onto +
當選為;被任命為 (...的委員)
He didn't get onto the committee.

get onto +
上 (電視或電台)
He got onto every major channel after the accident.

get onto +
(口頭或書面 -- 尤指透過電話) 與 (某人) 聯繫
We'd better get onto someone to fix this.

get onto +
上 (飛機、火車等)
She got onto the plane just before it took off.

get out
外出;出去;離開 (某空間)
She doesn't get out much now she has her baby.

get out
(秘密、消息等) 洩漏,走漏
How did the news of his appointment get out before it was officially made known?

get out
離開 (某地方);走出去,走出來;逃脫
The dog got out because I left the door open.

get * out
(從儲放處、隱藏處或停放處) 拿出,取出;把 (車) 開出來
I got the car out so that we could load up the suitcases.

get * out
清除 (班點、污垢、污跡、不想要的東西)
I spilled some red wine on my carpet and can't get the stains out.

get * out
出版;印刷;發行
We have to get the report out by the end of the month.

get * out +
竭力說出;用力發出 (聲音)
He was so upset he couldn't get the words out.

get out of +
逃避做不喜歡的事情;不必承擔 (責任、職責、義務等)
I said I wasn't feeling well and got out of the extra work.

get out of +
下車;下船;離開 (某一圍牆或籬笆高築的區域)
I fell into the water when I tried to get out of the canoe.
We got out of the taxi and paid the driver.

get out of +
停止 (某經常性的活動);戒掉、戒除 (某習慣)
If you get out of a routine, it can be hard to start again.

get * out of
從 (某人口中) 盤問出;從 (某人處) 探聽出
The police couldn't get any information out of him.

get * out of
從 (某人處) 獲得 (某物)
Did you get a refund out of the travel agency?

get * out of
從 (某事) 獲得樂趣 (或獲益)
She's getting a lot out of her university course.

get * out of
幫助 (某人) 逃避 (做某事)
I got him out of having to work at the weekend.

get out!
不會吧! (美國口語,僅用於祈使句,用來表示驚訝或不相信)
"I got 100% on the test." "Get out!"

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kettle

(動詞/名詞) 以警方人員和車輛所形成的封鎖線將抗議示威群眾包圍隔離在一個小區域;用警戒線封鎖或隔離。kettle 原意為「水壺;有蓋的鍋子」,在此它相當於 cordon 或 cordon off。這個字源自德文的 kessel (即英文的 kettle) 及其變體 einkesseln -- 此為軍事用語,意為「包圍」(to surround)。
kettling (現在分詞/動名詞)。

引句:
The anarchists, the police seemed to feel, were such an imminent danger to society that they needed to be 'kettled' — in other words, to have three police vans crawling along blocking their left-hand side, and a tight line of police one behind another on their right-hand-side, to make sure there was no possibility of break-out.

I've seen 'kettling' done even more intensively than this, at a recent Smash EDO protest in Brighton, for example, where the police were lined along the front and back of the group as well as down the sides, and I (walking my kid home from school) was warned to get out of the way as if it was an advancing army, rather than just 50-60 protesters. This small group in the 'kettle' was as resentful as you would expect.
—Bibi van der Zee, "'Kettled' anarchists increase worry for G20 demonstrators," The Guardian, March 30, 2009

Well, all four marches made it to the Bank of England - only to be blocked in by police in what's apparently called a 'kettle'. Nobody's being allowed out of the area in scenes reminiscent of Oxford Circus in 2001.
—"G20 Protests: 'Kettle' At Bank, Climate Camp Pitched," Londonist, April 1, 2009

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cash for clunkers

(名詞) 舊車換津貼。

美國聯邦參眾兩院 3 月間提出一項議案,以提供抵用券的方式鼓勵車主「棄舊換新」,報廢高耗油舊車、購買節能新車,或者借助公共交通工具外出。根據這項名為「舊車換津貼」(Cash for Clunkers) 的計劃,車主若願意報廢他們耗油量高的舊車並購買節能汽車,將可獲得最高 4500 元購買新車的抵用券。若車主不想購買新車,則可以用這些抵用券購買火車、巴士、地鐵等公共交通工具的車票。據稱,該議案能有效幫助目前身陷困境的汽車業,也對擔心不能負擔購買省油汽車的消費者,尤其是失業者,提供及時的援助。

引句:
He also said he supported proposals that provided “generous” tax credits to owners who turn in older models for fuel-efficient new cars. Such programs are dubbed “cash for clunkers.”
—Sholnn Freeman, "GM, Ford to make payments for buyers who lose jobs," The Washington Post, March 31, 2009

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World's first amphibious coach/世界首輛水路兩用巴士

AmphicoachThe world's first amphibious coach has been launched, allowing bus passengers to take to the waves.

The Amphicoach, which carries up to 50 passengers, is the brainchild of Scotsman George Smith.

The vehicle drives like a traditional coach until it reaches water, where its makers say it exhibits 'astonishing' sailing abilities.

The coach's wheels retract into a hull, made from marine-grade aluminium, allowing it to reach speeds of up to eight knots, powered by a jet-drive unit.

According to its makers, the Amphicoach can compete with any luxury standard road coach for performance, safety and comfort.

"On the other hand its sailing capabilities are accepted by marine experts involved in the project as being astonishing," said a spokesman.

"This feature consequently makes the vehicle suitable for extended water tours. The Amphicoach is able to operate day and night, in both fresh and salt water, which is highly unusual."

Twelve vehicles are to be built each year, under the supervision of Lloyd's Register, with Australian, Dutch and German companies said to be interested.

The spokesman added: "Due to the vehicle's superior stability and safety features the Amphicoach is a Modern Technological Wonder.

"Soon people will no longer be satisfied with just a city coach tour, they will want the complete package, a city coach tour with a water cruise built in." (ananova.com)

《字詞解析》

amphibious -- (adj.) 兩棲(類)的;水陸兩用的;兩棲作戰的;海陸空協同作戰的。

coach -- (n.) (美) 巴士,公車;(英) 長途巴士。

launch -- (v.) (產品) 推出,問世。

take to the waves -- (v.) 坐車到水面上。英文中 -- 尤其是新聞英語中 -- 還有一個結構相似但相當常用的片語,那就是 take to the streets -- (v) 走上街頭 (示威、抗議):We must take to the streets in protest against the incompetence and corruption of the government. (我們必須走上街頭示威,抗議政府無能、腐敗)。

brainchild -- (n.) 智慧結晶;(某人的) 創作,獨創的構想。

astonishing -- (adj.) 令人驚訝的;驚人的。

retract -- (v.) 縮回,縮進。

hull -- (n.) 車殼;船殼。

marine-grade aluminum -- (n.) 船舶級鋁,即製造船舶用的鋁。新聞英語中還有一個結構相似但常見許多的片語,那就是 weapon-grade uranium -- (n.) 武器級鈾,即製造武器用的鈾。marine -- (adj.) 船舶的,航海的;海運的,海事的;海洋的。

knot -- (n.) 節 (航速單位。1 節等於 1 海里/小時)。

jet-drive -- (adj.) 噴射驅動的。jet-drive unit:噴射驅動裝置。

compete with -- (v.) 比得上。

luxury -- (adj.) (僅用在名詞之前) 昂貴的;豪華的;高檔的。

Lloyd's Register (of Shipping) – (n.) 勞埃船級社 --世界第一個也是最大的船舶分級學會,成立於1760年,主要從事建立商船的製造和維修標準,並提供技術服務。

with Australian, Dutch and German companies said to be interested -- (prep.) 據說澳洲、荷蘭和德國的公司都有 (採購的) 興趣。在 "with + 名詞 + 現在分詞/過去分詞" 這種 with 的複合結構中,若名詞為主動,則其後接現在分詞,若為被動,則接過去分詞。由於這些公司是被說的,不是他們自己說的,所以其後用 said,而不是 saying。

modern technological wonder -- (n.) 現代科技奇蹟。

complete package -- (n.) 完整的套裝旅遊。

water cruise -- (n.) 水上巡行;水上巡遊。這裡又用到 with 的複合結構,其理解方式與上述相同。

延伸閱讀:新聞英語的語法結構

zombie bank

(名詞) 殭屍銀行:因負債大於資產而無法提供貸款,但由於政府支援而繼續營運的銀行。

引句:
There's a reasonable chance — not a certainty — that Citi and [Bank of America], together, will lose hundreds of billions over the next few years. And their capital, the excess of their assets over their liabilities, isn't remotely large enough to cover those potential losses.

Arguably, the only reason they haven't already failed is that the government is acting as a backstop, implicitly guaranteeing their obligations. But they're zombie banks, unable to supply the credit the economy needs.
—Paul Krugman, "Banking on the Brink," The New York Times, February 23, 2009

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