overvoting

(名詞) 在選票上圈選一個以上的候選人。

事實上,overvoting 並非新字,但迄今大多數字典都還未收錄這個字,而且台灣將在 2012 年舉行總統選舉,顯然地,這個字頗具時事性。如果您覺得馬英九和蔡英文都是您喜愛的候選人,那麼投票時將他們同時圈選亦無不可,只是那張票就成了廢票。

必須注意的是,overvoting 亦可寫成 over-voting,兩者出現的頻率差不多。此外,《牛津英語大辭典》(Oxford English Dictionary, OED) 自 1641 年起就收錄了它的相關字 overvote,但後者是當動詞用,意為「以多數票擊敗 (對手)」,只是 overvote 現已廢棄不用。再者,overvoting 的反義詞當然就是 undervoting,意為「在選票上未圈選任何候選人」。

引句:
Election officials who use punch card systems similar to the one in Palm Beach County expect that a certain number of ballots will have more than one hole punched in a given race, a practice called "overvoting."
—Don Van Natta, Jr, and Dana Canedy, "Florida Democrats Say Ballot's Design Hurt Gore," The New York Times, November 9, 2000

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intactivist

(名詞) 支持立法或遊說立法來禁止嬰兒割包皮的活躍人士 (activist)。
intactivism (名詞):支持立法來禁止嬰兒割包皮的立場或主張。

引句:
For Chapin and other advocates at Intact America, even a discussion over whether the potential benefits of circumcision outweigh its risks is unwarranted. The organization, the largest group of "intactivists" in North America, sent a petition with 25,000 signatures to the CDC in May stating its opposition to any recommendation in favour of infant circumcision.
—Megan Ogilvie, "Controversy reignited over benefits of male circumcision," The Toronto Star, July 4, 2010

Perhaps it's easier for these so-called "intactivists" to get attention at the local level. Hey, City Hall spent months talking about Happy Meal toys so why not? Both the San Francisco and Santa Monica measures would make circumcising any male under the age of 18 illegal, even for religious reasons.
—Heather Knight, "San Francisco circumcision ban replicated in Santa Monica," San Francisco Chronicle, May 29, 2011

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1.5 generation

(名詞) 1.5 代:某一移入現居國的族群或民族中,從小 (尤指開始上學之前) 就移民的成員。亦寫成 1.5G1.5er

為何是 1.5 呢? 因為這些小孩介於第一代和第二代之間。換言之,他們不是第一代,因為他們是在外國出生的,但他們也不是第二代,因為他們的父母並非歸化入籍的公民。事實上,社會學家是以 1.25 代、1.5 代和 1.75 代來區分這些小移民,數字越小代表移民時的年紀越大,但當時他們都還是小孩。這些小小年紀就移民的世代就是所謂的「小數點世代」(decimal generations)。

引句:
They're members of what sociologists call "the 1.5 generation" — children brought to the U.S. at a young age, raised as Americans with little connection to the country where they were born.
—"Pass the Dream Act," Chicago Tribune, September 20, 2010

The "1.5 generation", Chinese-Americans born outside the United States and mainly educated in the country, receive the highest returns on their educational levels of any generation.
—Tan Yingzi, "Younger Chinese-Americans earning less," China Daily, February 14, 2011

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vote mob

(名詞) 透過社交網路聚集來鼓勵年輕人在即將來臨的選舉中踴躍投票的群眾。
vote mobbing (動名詞):透過社交網路聚集來鼓勵年輕人在即將來臨的選舉中踴躍投票。

引句:
A new mob is arising in Canada, and this one should be heartily encouraged. It's the "vote mob" movement that in recent days has been spreading to universities across the country, including McGill in Montreal, and consists of young people urging their peers to get out and vote in the coming federal election.
—"An admirable push to get out the youth vote," Montreal Gazette, April 16, 2011

The youth vote has become one of the hottest topics in the federal election campaign, as "vote mobs" of students have taken place across Canada and videos encouraging young people to cast ballots on May 2 have gone viral on social networks.
—"Youth vote: Are you seeing more engagement among young people?," CBC, April 27, 2011

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voting virginity

(名詞) 滿 18 歲 (台灣為 20 歲) 後的首次投票。

包括美國、英國和德國在內,全世界大多數國家的投票年齡都是 18 歲,但日本跟台灣一樣須年滿 20 歲才有投票權,而南韓是 19 歲。

例句:
I turned 18 last year, so this election I can lose my voting virginity. (我去年滿 18 歲,所以這次選舉我可以投票了)

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neverendum

(名詞) 一而再、再而三舉行的公民投票。

之所以將同一提案不停地付諸公投,乃因一般認為,選民終將支持該提案,因為他們經過多次同一提案的公投後已經身心俱疲,不想再來一次同樣的公投,因此就會乾脆讓它通過。

例句:
"A referendum on banning ice cream again? This is the third time they've tried to get this passed in four years." (又要進行禁止冰淇淋的公投嗎? 這是四年來他們第三度試圖使此禁令過關)

"I'm voting in favor this time, just to be done with this neverendum." (這次我將投贊成票,只是要讓這項一而再、再而三舉行的公民投票徹底劃下休止符)

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gastro-diplomacy

(名詞) 美食外交。亦寫成 gastrodiplomacy

外交部新聞文化司8月初表示,政府預定以四年編列新台幣11億元預算,推動美食外交,將臭豆腐和蚵仔煎等台灣特色小吃介紹到國際上,展現軟實力,未來還會將其他美食納入這批新外交尖兵的行列。

據英國衛報 (the Guardian) 報導,這是在總統馬英九下令駐外使節向外國介紹台灣特色小吃後,外交部駐英代表處已經展開美食外交行動,外交部編列的預算高達2千萬英鎊,約合新台幣11億元。

報導說,在此之前,亞洲國家如馬來西亞、韓國等國家已有美食外交先例,南韓在美國加州賣以墨西哥餅夾泡菜的速食餐車力推「泡菜外交」(kimchi diplomacy),大受歡迎。馬來西亞政府也預定在今年9 月把倫敦的特拉法加廣場變裝成為馬來西亞美食街。連北韓國營連鎖餐廳「平壤餐廳」也到柬埔寨、曼谷、中國和寮國擴大營業,主打狗肉湯和韓式冷麵等美食。

台灣的美食外交亦被稱為 dim sum diplomacy (小吃外交;點心外交)。

引句:
For all that Korea is spending trying to rebrand itself and push Korean gastrodiplomacy, it would be better served listening and looking for examples of organic, authentic and homegrown outlets of cultural gastrodiplomacy like the Korean taco truck. (Korea Times, 4 Jul. 2010)

Taiwan has become the latest country to launch a diplomatic drive based around its national cuisine. President Ma Ying-jeou has ordered his envoys to start talking the language of food by launching a £20m “gastro-diplomacy” campaign in the UK and elsewhere. (Guardian, 8 Aug. 2010)

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birther

(名詞) 出生質疑者:質疑美國總統歐巴馬 (Barack Obama) 不是在美國出生 (而是在肯亞出生)、因此沒有資格擔任美國總統的人。這個字通常帶貶義。
birtherism (名詞):出生質疑論。

引句:
Last December, in dismissing the birth-certificate argument as a 'canard,' Gilbert wrote, 'The 'birthers' are the new 'truthers.' ' Soon, birther met its counterpart, deather — that is, someone who insists that health care reform will lead to 'death panels' eager to pull the plug on 'granny.'
—Leslie Savan, "On Language: From Simple Noun to Handy Partisan Put-Down," The New York Times, November 18, 2009

Some Republicans have shifted their strategy against the health care bill from fighting over the details to questioning the very constitutionality of mandatory health insurance. And a few have sympathized with the so-called birthers, who continue to challenge Obama's citizenship and legitimacy as president despite all evidence to the contrary.
—Susan Milligan, "Obama domestic agenda largely a one-party effort," The Boston Globe, November 17, 2009

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walling

(名詞) 撞牆 -- 一種刑求手段,刑求者用力將囚犯推去撞擊一面有彈性的假牆,讓囚犯的肩胛骨發出巨大撞擊聲,使其誤以為「撞很大」。囚犯的頭部和頸部通常會被戴上護頭和護肩,以免受傷。

引句:
NBC Nightly News noted that the memos provide “the fullest description yet of the techniques used by the CIA on roughly 30 detainees,” including “slapping, sleep deprivation, stress positions, nudity, something called “walling”—slamming detainees against a false wall, provided they wear a collar to minimize whiplash.”
—"Administration releases Bush-era interrogation memos," US News & World Report: Political Bulletin, April 17, 2009

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genopolitics

(名詞) 政治遺傳學 -- 一門研究政治行為和態度是由基因所決定的科學。它是由行為遺傳學 (behavioral genetics)、心理學 (psychology) 和政治學 (political science) 所構成,且與新興的政治神經學 (neuropolitics) 和政治生理學 (political physiology) 有密切關係。
genopolitical (形容詞):政治遺傳的;政治遺傳學的。

引句:
Why do some people vote and others stay home on Election Day? For years, scholars have assumed that a voter pulls the lever because she grew up in a voting household or perhaps sat through a lot of civics classes. But this year two political scientists published studies claiming that in addition to environment, genes may be a primary influence on political engagement. Not only that, they think they have identified the genes that increase the likelihood of voting. A political scientist who advocates this approach calls this emerging field genopolitics.
—Emily Biuso, "Genopolitics," The New York Times, December 12, 2008

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