referee vs. umpire

referee 和 umpire 都是運動比賽的裁判,但它們並非一體適用,而是不同的體育項目有不同的稱呼。

「裁判」叫做 referee 的運動比賽:
籃球 (basketball)、拳擊 (boxing)、曲棍球 (hockey or field hockey)、冰上曲棍球 (ice hockey)、長柄曲棍球 (lacrosse)、英式橄欖球 (rugby)、撞球 (snooker)、足球 (soccer, American football, European football)、短拍壁球 (racketball/racquetball)、長拍壁球 (squash) 和摔角 (wrestling) 等。

「裁判」叫做 umpire 的運動比賽:
羽毛球 (badminton)、棒球 (baseball)、板球 (cricket)、游泳 (swimming)、網球 (tennis) 和排球 (volleyball) 等。

本文亦刊載在下列網址:
http://htmfiles.englishhome.org/main/sports_place_verb.htm

deather

(名詞) 認為美國健保改革將導致更多人 -- 尤其是老人 -- 死亡的人。這個字通常帶貶義。
deatherism (名詞):健保改革導致更多死亡論。

引句:
The new suffix is "ers." It started with the "9/11 truthers" — crazy. Then, the "birthers" — crazy. And now, the DNC is calling people concerned with end-of-life provisions in the healthcare proposal "deathers" — crazy.
—Glenn Beck, "The Glenn Beck Program," Fox News Network, August 14, 2009

本文亦刊載在下列網址:
http://htmfiles.englishhome.org/main/med.htm

birther

(名詞) 出生質疑者:質疑美國總統歐巴馬 (Barack Obama) 不是在美國出生 (而是在肯亞出生)、因此沒有資格擔任美國總統的人。這個字通常帶貶義。
birtherism (名詞):出生質疑論。

引句:
Last December, in dismissing the birth-certificate argument as a 'canard,' Gilbert wrote, 'The 'birthers' are the new 'truthers.' ' Soon, birther met its counterpart, deather — that is, someone who insists that health care reform will lead to 'death panels' eager to pull the plug on 'granny.'
—Leslie Savan, "On Language: From Simple Noun to Handy Partisan Put-Down," The New York Times, November 18, 2009

Some Republicans have shifted their strategy against the health care bill from fighting over the details to questioning the very constitutionality of mandatory health insurance. And a few have sympathized with the so-called birthers, who continue to challenge Obama's citizenship and legitimacy as president despite all evidence to the contrary.
—Susan Milligan, "Obama domestic agenda largely a one-party effort," The Boston Globe, November 17, 2009

本文亦刊載在下列網址:
http://htmfiles.englishhome.org/main/politic.htm

upstander

(名詞) 採取行動的人。試與 bystander (旁觀者) 作比較。

引句:
"I had to do something because I feel that there is no place in my hometown of Houston for unchallenged haters," Bleiweiss said. "This group has taken on a life of its own, and it has become time consuming for me, but I would rather be an 'upstander,' and do something about the hatred, than be a bystander."
—Arlene Nisson Lassin, "Taking matters into his own hands," The Houston Chronicle, November 6, 2009

本文亦刊載在下列網址:
http://htmfiles.englishhome.org/main/misc_cont4.htm

chemofog

(名詞) 化療 (chemotherapy) 後的記憶力衰退 (健忘) 及心智功能減弱現象。亦寫成 chemo fog, chemo-fog

這個字最初是以兩個字 chemo fog 的型態出現,然後變成 chemo-fog,最後再變成一個字 chemofog。值得注意的是,在英文中,與 chemofog 同義的用字或用語還有 chemobrain (或 chemo brain) 和 brain fog,它們出現得比較早,而且比 chemofog 常用許多。

引句:
Dr Janette Vardy from the Sydney Cancer Centre, told the Clinical Oncological Society of Australia Annual Scientific Meeting 'chemofog' had previously been assumed to be temporary, but for 20 to 30 per cent of patients, it had been shown to be ongoing. "It is only in the last 10 years that we have recognised 'chemofog' or 'chemobrain' as a condition," Dr Vardy said. "For a long time some oncologists didn't believe it was real and it was all in the mind.
—"Chemo may leave brain fog," Science Alert, November 18, 2009

本文亦刊載在下列網址:
http://htmfiles.englishhome.org/main/med.htm

mancession

(名詞) 對男性所造成的影響更甚於女性的經濟不景氣。亦寫成 man-cession。這個字是由 man 和 recession 拼綴而成。

引句:
What is a mancession, you ask? It's not this. It's a recession that hurts men much more than women, and we are allegedly in the worst mancession in recent history. Eighty percent of job losses in the last two years were among men, said AEI scholar Christina Hoff Summers, and it could get worse.
—Derek Thompson, "It's Not Just a Recession. It's a Mancession!," The Atlantic, July 9, 2009

本文亦刊載在下列網址:
http://htmfiles.englishhome.org/main/comeco_cont2.htm

grab-and-goer

(名詞) 快速挑選商品就結帳離開的人。這些人因不喜歡購物或沒有太多時間購物,所以在購物挑選商品時往往未多加思考,拿到商品就快速結帳走人。
grab-and-go (動詞):快速挑選商品就結帳離開。

引句:
The clichés are that women shop, men buy. But when I went shopping with people — and I went shopping with a lot of men and women — I found that a lot of women are what men are supposed to be, which is the 'grab and goers,' who hate shopping. When a man spends hours and hours and hours online looking for the right cellphone or something like that, he's shopping. But the culture tends not to notice that.
—Lee Eisenberg quoted in Sarah Boesveld, "Q&A: Good news — it's okay to shop," The Globe and Mail, November 9, 2009

本文亦刊載在下列網址:
http://htmfiles.englishhome.org/main/comeco_cont1.htm

charticle

(名詞) 含有圖表或類似圖形並加一小段說明文字的新聞報導。這個字是由 chart 和 article 拼綴而成。

引句:
The pugilist was one Henry Allen, a renowned writer and an editor with the Style section. On the other end of Allen's ire (something between a clenched fist and a slap, say eyewitnesses) was Style writer Manuel Roig-Franzia, co-author of a "charticle" (an appetizer-sized combination of words, images and graphics) that Allen called the second-worst story he'd seen in 43 years.
—Kathleen Parker, "A spark of passion in the newsroom," The Washington Post, November 8, 2009

本文亦刊載在下列網址:
http://htmfiles.englishhome.org/main/news.htm

paradessence

(名詞) 能同時滿足愛好、品味等截然不同的消費者之需求的產品本質和固有特性。這個字是由 paradoxical (自相矛盾的) 和 essence 拼綴而成。
paradessential (形容詞):這種產品本質和固有特性的。

引句:
Many products exhibit a paradoxical essence, or paradessence, in promising to simultaneously satisfy two opposing consumer/buyer desires. 'Products blessed with paradessence somehow combine two mutually exclusive states and satisfy both simultaneously. Ice cream melds eroticism and innocence. Air travel offers sanitised adventure. Amusement parks provide terror and reassurance. Automobiles render drivers reckless and safe. Sneakers grasp earth and help consumers soar free. Muzak is a hybrid of transience and eternity'.
—Aidan O'Driscoll, "Culture, Contradiction and Marketing Pragmatism," Irish Marketing Review, September 9, 2009

本文亦刊載在下列網址:
http://htmfiles.englishhome.org/main/comeco_cont3.htm

pyrogeography

(名詞) 森林大火地理學:研究過去、現在及預測之森林大火分佈情形的學問。這個字的字首 pyro- 意為「火」(fire)。
pyrogeographer (名詞):森林大火地理學家。
pyrogeographical (形容詞):森林大火地理 (學) 的。

引句:
A key to understanding those consequences is the notion of the "fire regime", where different vegetation has characteristic fires in terms of recurrence, intensity, seasonality and biological effects. Indeed, fire can be thought of as an emergent property of vegetation in the same way that vegetation can be thought of as an emergent property of climates. In other words, Earth has a "pyrogeography".
—David Bowman, "Scorched earth: Wildfires will change the way we live," New Scientist, October 7, 2009

本文亦刊載在下列網址:
http://htmfiles.englishhome.org/main/edu.htm