fast-food zoning

(名詞) 速食分區法:目的在阻止速食餐廳 (fast-food restaurant) 或速食店 (fast-food eatery) 在某地區或社區設立的法律。

在美國,繼櫃臺點餐的速食餐廳和外帶餐廳 (takeout restaurant 或簡稱 takeout) 崛起之後,為了區別,一般有餐桌服務 (table service) 的餐廳乃被稱為 sit-down restaurant (引句中也有提到)。 sit-down restaurant 通常被歸類為「家庭式」(family-style) 或「正式的」(formal) 餐廳。在英式英語中,restaurant 這個名詞幾乎都是指有餐桌服務的餐廳,所以未必需要 "sit-down" 來限定;英國的速食店和外帶飲食店 (takeaway outlet -- 外帶餐館在英國叫做 takeaway,在美國叫做 takeout 或 carryout,但後者較少見) 通常不被稱為 restaurant。

引句:
In an effort to provide residents with more nutritious choices, the L.A. City Council adopted landmark legislation in July mandating a one-year moratorium on the building of new fast-food eateries in a 32-square-mile area. (Fast-food zoning exists in other cities but is based on aesthetic considerations, not health factors.) According to Jan Perry, a council member who co-sponsored the bill and whose district is part of South L.A., the idea is to freeze fast-food development so that sit-down restaurants and quality-food markets will build in the area. 'When every corner is taken up with fast food,' Perry says, 'there's no room for anyone else.'
—Steven Kurutz, "Fast-Food Zoning," The New York Times, December 14, 2008

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pre-gaming

(現在分詞/名詞) 晚上外出,前往酒類昂貴或不供應酒類的地方玩樂之前在家裡狂飲 (大肆飲酒)。亦寫成 pregaming

引句:
Max and his brothers are pre-gaming. A dozen of them strut about the courtyard of their house on the University of Florida's Fraternity Row, each nursing a cold beer in a foam hugger. A Frisbee flies as Jimi Hendrix blares from the loudspeakers.

The only thing unusual about this day's pre-gaming is that it actually precedes a game. In the two decades since the legal drinking age was raised to 21, the term has come to encompass any rapid consumption of alcohol in private before venturing out to venues where drinking may not be possible.
—Kevin Sack, "At the Legal Limit," The New York Times, November 2, 2008

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