recycled pulsar

(名詞) 回收脈衝星。

根據「科學」(Science) 雜誌5月21日的報導,脈衝星為一種特殊類別的中子星 (neutron stars),是大量星體爆炸成為超新星 (supernovae) 所產生的殘骸。它們誕生時會快速旋轉 (高達每秒數十次),並在旋轉時以帶有無線電能 (radio energy) 的光束劃破天際,之後轉速漸漸緩慢下來直到不再發出無線電波為止,然後消逝 (第二度消逝)。然而,一些消逝的脈衝星竟然又轉化為超長壽命、每秒可旋轉數百次的超快速毫秒脈衝星 (millisecond pulsar)。由於這些脈衝星的誕生有如吾人生活中的垃圾回收,因此科學家將之稱為「 回收脈衝星」。這是科學家首次發現的宇宙星球回收現象。

引句:
Astronomers have long theorized that these superfast stars share their orbit with a companion star from which they leech extra material. The material settles around the pulsar’s middle in a so-called accretion disk. As material from the disk falls onto the surface of the pulsar, it imparts enough angular momentum to spin back up into what scientists call a ”recycled pulsar.” “We mean it in the same sense as recycling your plastics,” Archibald said. “These pulsars have died and become invisible and useless to us, but they get brought back to life by getting fed from a companion.”
—Lisa Grossman, " Wired Science News for Your Neurons Missing Link in Pulsar Evolution Is a Cannibal," Wired, May 21, 2009

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cash-back car

(名詞) 完全電動車 (all-electric car)。根據美國正在進行的多項研究計畫以及多家著名車廠即將生產的車種,未來的電動車 (electric car) 在配備所謂 V2G (vehicle-to-grid -- 車輛至電力網) 的軟硬體之後將可把車輛多餘的電力賣給發電廠或電力公司,每年賺取約 1,000 至 2,500 美元的收入,因此這種電動車又稱為 cash-back car or vehicleV2G car or vehicle。美國總統歐巴馬 2009 年 3 月間在美國國家廣播公司 (NBC) 脫口秀節目 The Jay Leno Show 中亦提到 V2G,顯示這種完全電動車將成為未來汽車發展的主流或至少佔有一席之地。

引句:
While a handful of such vehicle-to-grid (V2G) research projects have emerged from California to Texas to Colorado, Dr. Kempton’s project has driven the farthest.

For more than a decade, Kempton has researched, lobbied, and agitated for these “cash-back cars.” His and other in-depth studies describe a future where electric-car owners plug in at malls, hardware stores, or home garages and earn $1,000 to $2,500 annually for the power they pump back into the system.
—Mark Clayton, "My ride? It’s a power plant," Christian Science Monitor, April 24, 2009

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mindcasting

(動名詞/現在分詞) 心思播送 -- 張貼一系列短文或訊息來反映個人目前的思想、觀念、心情、觀察到的現象或事物、閱讀的文章或書籍以及其他心智方面感興趣的事物。
mindcast (動詞,名詞):心思播送。
mindcaster (名詞):心思播送者。

引句中一再提到的 lifecasting 為:(動名詞/現在分詞) 生活播送 -- 利用手提攝影機在網路上播送個人一天24小時的活動 (可能包括沐浴和如廁)。lifecast (動詞):生活播送;lifecaster (名詞):生活播送者。

引句:
But the claim that Twitter is nothing but mindless inanities is just as wrong as the analogous claim for blogs — in fact it's precisely the same claim, five years later. There are other things you can do with the technology — the technical terms are "lifecasting" [here's what I had for dinner] vs. "mindcasting" [here's a thought, a question, an observation, a link to something more substantial].
—Sean Carroll, "Twitter Agonistes," Discover, April 23, 2009

Twitter, the micro-messaging service where users broadcast short thoughts to one another, has been widely labeled the newest form of digital narcissism. And if it's not self-obsession tweeters are accused of, it's self-promotion, solipsism or flat out frivolousness.

But naysayers will soon eat their tweets. There's already a vibrant community of Twitter users who are using the system to share and filter the hyper-glut of online information with ingenious efficiency. Forget what you had for breakfast or how much you hate Mondays. That's just lifecasting.

Mindcasting is where it's at.
—David Sarno, "On Twitter, mindcasting is the new lifecasting," Los Angeles Times, March 11, 2009

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crowd mining

(名詞/現在分詞) 自大型社交資料庫提取或吸取有用的知識。亦寫成 crowd-mining

引句:
The six billion people on Earth are changing the biosphere so quickly that traditional ecological methods can't keep up. Humans, though, are acute observers of their environments and bodies, so scientists are combing through the text and numbers on the Internet in hopes of extracting otherwise unavailable or expensive information. It's more crowd mining than crowd sourcing.

Much of the pioneering work in this type of Internet surveillance has come in the public health field, tracking disease. Google Flu Trends, which uses a cloud of keywords to determine how sick a population is, tracks epidemiological data from the Centers for Disease Control.
—Alexis Madrigal, "Crawling the Web to Foretell Ecosystem Collapse," Wired Science, March 19, 2009

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whaling

(名詞) 網路捕鯨:透過惡意軟體 (malware) 有系統地竊取特定重要目標的機密文件。據稱,電腦一旦遭滲透植入惡意軟體,駭客即能控制遭駭電腦收發機密資料,甚至也能開啟它們的錄音錄影裝置,透過螢幕監視和竊聽其所在房間和四周的動靜。顯然地,這與隨機竊取電腦使用者個人財務和密碼資料的「網路釣魚」(phishing) 不同。

phishing -- (名詞/形容詞) 網路釣魚:一種網路騙術,騙徒利用複雜精密的技術建立仿冒自某著名大公司網站的網頁或以該公司的名義發出偽造的 email 來誘騙用戶送出個人財務資料 (如信用卡資料) 和密碼資料等。這個字之所以出現,是因為它跟 "fishing" 的發音相同,而 "to fish for information" 的意思就是「刺探情報」。此種網路騙術又稱為 spoofing,而這些騙徒則叫做 phishers。避免被 phishing 的秘訣有數項,茲將其中犖犖大者敘述於后:1. 若收到不明的電郵說你的帳號即將被關閉,除非你已確認個人的帳號資料,否則千萬不要回信或點按信件內文中的任何超連結。2. 在經由網站送出個人財務資料之前,務必先看看瀏覽器的狀態列上是否有個「大鎖」的圖示,若有,則表示資料在傳輸過程中是安全無虞的。3. 若你在不知不覺中提供了個人或財務資料,請立即與銀行和信用卡公司聯絡。

引句:
The malware is remarkable both for its sweep—in computer jargon, it has not been merely “phishing” for random consumers’ information, but “whaling” for particular important targets—and for its Big Brother-style capacities. It can, for example, turn on the camera and audio-recording functions of an infected computer, enabling monitors to see and hear what goes on in a room.
—John Markoff, " Vast spy system loots computers in 103 countries," The New York Times, March 28, 2009

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Twitterverse

(名詞) 推特 (Twitter -- 微網誌;微型部落格) 社交網路服務及使用該服務的人。這個字是由 Twitter 和 universe 拼綴而成,亦寫成 twitterverse, Twitter-verse

引句:
The Twitterverse is expanding.

Twitter, that microblogging tool that caught on with teens and twenty-somethings using it to tell loyal followers what they're doing at any given time — in 140 characters or less — is now becoming part of the business strategy for a wide range of brands, from Skittles to Fairfax County. ...

Shashi Bellamkonda, Network Solutions' social media swami (yes, that's his real title), organized the tutorial, attended by about 30 people. He's a more prolific Twitterer than most, posting anywhere from five to 15 tweets per day about anything from his daily routine to the news. Big companies such as Dell are active in the Twitterverse addressing customer service issues, he said.
—Kim Hart, "Firms Take to The Tweetable Business Model," The Washington Post, March 9, 2009

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wedsite

(名詞) 情侶或夫妻張貼他們即將結婚或剛結婚之訊息的網站。這個字是由 wedding 和 website 拼綴而成,亦寫成 wed-site, wed site

引句:
FirstPhera is another name that thrives around the business of weddings, and is developed by Vikas Sabnani who started his venture a year ago in Ahmedabad. FirstPhera is into wedsites-websites that are used by the couple to invite friends and relatives, post pictures, and blogs related to pre and post wedding events. These wedsites also help clients share stories, and view posted greetings from friends' and relatives'.
—"Yes, I do: The business of weddings," The Economic Times, November 7, 2008

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file carving

(名詞) 檔案內容復原技術。亦叫做 data carving

這種技術能夠在磁碟之未配置空間內,自動尋找嵌附在這些硬碟空間的 doc、pdf 文件檔抑或 jpg等圖片檔案,精準呈現可疑之檔案內容。由於現在犯罪嫌犯的電腦技術日益高深,而且少部份嫌犯已懂得如何讓犯罪檔案「隱形」。因此,能夠學習如何破解密碼以及如何尋找內隱的檔案,對於重要案件之偵查,將有莫大的助益。

引句:
It is an example of a sophisticated technique called file carving—restoring the contents of a file after the identifying information that accompanies it has been removed or lost.
—Anne Eisenberg, " Sleuthing software can reassemble deleted photos," The New York Times, March 1, 2009

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self-tracker

(名詞) 自我追蹤者:利用網站或其他技術鉅細靡遺地追蹤與記錄自己的身體、精神狀態和活動等各方面之資料的人。
-- self-tracking (現在分詞/動名詞):自我追蹤。

引句:
The Internet had long ago turned navel-gazing into an international pastime, but self-tracking takes the self-absorption to a new level. Using elaborate graphs, pie charts, websites and newer technologies, self-trackers catalogue everything in their lives, sometimes with no clear result.
—Zosia Bielski, "My so-called life," The Globe and Mail, February 19, 2009

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